When they strike ordinary atoms in the upper atmosphere, the cosmic rays smash them apart. Some of these neutrons then collide with nitrogen atoms.
This collision is less destructive than the initial collision that produced them.
In living organisms, which are always taking in carbon, the levels of carbon 14 likewise stay constant.
In its chemical reactions and physical interactions, sodium chloride doesn’t act like the elements that make it up (sodium and chlorine); rather, it acts as a completely different and unique substance.So, if you lifted a five-pound sack of sugar from the floor to the top of a counter (27 inches), you would use about 15 joules of energy.Around the world, scientists measure energy in joules rather than Btus.Back in the 1940s, the American chemist Willard Libby used this fact to determine the ages of organisms long dead.Most carbon atoms have six protons and six neutrons in their nuclei and are called carbon 12. But a tiny percentage of carbon is made of carbon 14, or radiocarbon, which has six protons and eight neutrons and is not stable: half of any sample of it decays into other atoms after 5,700 years.